Annual report published on January 1 Racial and Identity Profiling Advisory Board (RIPA) made a number of observations about law enforcement officers in California. This is his sixth report since RIPA was founded in 2016, collecting data on common policing and ways to eliminate illegal activity.
“For the past four years, data collected under the Racial and Identity Profiling Act has provided empirical evidence of disparities in policing across California,” the report said. shows the same trend across all aspects of law enforcement suspensions, from the reasons for the suspension to the actions taken during the suspension to the consequences of the suspension.”
The report spans outage data that occurred from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021, with input from 58 law enforcement agencies and the negative impact of youth-focused interactions between citizens and police. are analyzing.
Over 3.1 million stops were reported in the 2021 timeframe. In terms of “perceived” race or ethnicity, police agencies are 42.2% Hispanic/Latino (x), 30% White, 15% Black, 5.3% Asian, and 4.8% Middle Eastern/South Asian. , 1% said they were multiethnic and 0.5%. Pacific Islanders, and 0.3% Native Americans. Additionally, 72.1% are cisgender men and 27.5% are cisgender women, accounting for 99.7% of all stops.
Reasons for a “stop” by law enforcement include traffic violations (86.6%) or reasonable suspicion of involvement in criminal activity (10.5%). Blacks had the highest rate of “reasonable suspicion” stops at 16.2% and the lowest rate of traffic violations (80.5%).
The RIPA Board found that black and Hispanic/Latino (x) individuals are more likely to be subjected to the use of force than white individuals. Black teenagers aged 10-14 and 15-17 were searched by police (20.1%), detained (17.9%), handcuffed (15.4%), or “ordered to leave the vehicle.” was done” (7.6%).
Black youth were 36.2% to 44.5% likely to be detained on the shoulder or in a police car, 39.9% to 42.4% likely to be searched, and 33.5% to 36.5% likely to be handcuffed. Ultimately, this data shows that her teens who identify as black are searched six times as often as white teenagers and who identify as Hispanic/Latino (x). teens were searched four times as often as her.
Adolescents’ interactions with law enforcement, including repetitive interactions, can affect an individual’s mental health. “Studies show that the type of contact with law enforcement and the frequency of involuntary contact have a detrimental effect on arrested individuals, stress reactions, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and other related mental health outcomes. It has been shown that it can cause adverse effects on “This study suggests that race and identity profiling goes beyond the criminal justice system and the police. It is also a significant public health issue.”
“Based on our research, the Board believes public health officials and policymakers should treat race and identity profiling and adverse policing as a serious public health problem. , Black, Hispanic/Latino(x), Indigenous, and individuals of color can be adversely impacted on their mental and physical health. It can significantly reduce the high stress, community fragmentation, and poor health of community members who target or engage in aggressive policing. We need to invest sufficient resources to understand and address the health implications of profiling.”
This report covers a variety of information relevant to the discussion of how law enforcement abuses the system through pretexted stoppages or searches. As such, it does not constitute a reasonable doubt or probable cause. ”
While the report doesn’t specifically delve into details about cannabis, of washington post published an article on racial disparities in law enforcement in Virginia in October 2022. The state legalized adult-use cannabis in July 2021, but the article spotlighted that Virginia police are still more likely to arrest blacks than whites for cannabis-related crimes. .
A 2020 New York Police Department (NYPD) analysis of cannabis arrests found that 94% of all Cannabis-related arrests affected people of color. whole, NYPD arrests for cannabis declined in 2022but arrest rates for those considered black or Hispanic remained high.
In April 2020, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) released a detailed report showing disparities in arrests of black individuals. This shows that arrests are still widespread in states where cannabis is legal and decriminalized, and that racial disparities are still common across the country.